The town's castle is the origin for the later Dukes of Berg. Altena is situated on the Lenne river valley, in the northern stretches of the Sauerland. Altena Castle was built in the early 12th century, as a stronghold of the older Counts of Berg. A short time later a village was founded beneath the hill, with the castle alongside the river Lennewhich feeds into the river Ruhr. After the distribution of the Berg family estates inAltena became the centre of the County of Altena.
Inafter the death of the first count, the county was divided between the two oldest sons: Arnold of Altena and Friedrich of Altena. The third son, Adolf of Altena, became Archbishop of Cologne.
He was sentenced to death as head of the conspiration to murder Engelbert I. The Archbishop was ambushed and slain on his way from his City of Soest to City of Cologne by Friedrich and his men near Gevelsberg in a hollow way.
Both had a dispute over the bailiwicks of Essen Abbey.
The junior branch of the Counts of Altena, was founded by Friedrich de Altena. He was provided with the other half of Altena and a vassal to his brother the Archbishop of Cologne. In or around he bought the Oberhof Mark or was rewarded with it by the Archbishop. Today, about a 1,5 kilometers to the east of the centre of the city of Hamm.
Before or in he built the Castle of Mark. His son Adolf I. He sometimes used the old title Altena in combination with Mark. His principal residence was the Castle of Mark. After the execution of his cousin Friedrich de Isenberg in Cologne, he destroyed the Castle of Neinbruegge and took over the possessions of the senior family branch. In the settlement below the castle received limited town rights through Engelbert III.
Count de la Mark. Since Altena remained only the seat of the bailiff for bailiwick Altena. The castle was also used as an archive for documents and patents for the county. Inthe last count died childless. After the Congress of Vienna the County of Mark was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and reorganized as a district Kreis and government district Regierungsbezirk. Altena became part of the Regierungsbezirk Hamm and was seat of the Kreis Altena. Within the year the Government moved the quarters from Hamm to Arnsbergand changed the name into Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg.
The town's biggest attraction is the castle: Burg Altena. After being un-used for centuries it was in ruins, although part of the buildings was used as a hospital. A complete restoration was undertaken in to celebrate the th anniversary of the Prussian incorporation of the county of Mark into Prussia Brandenburg. However, most of the work did not finish before ; the celebrations were then held at Hohensyburg Castle.
In the world's first youth hostel was created by Richard Schirrmann inside the castle.
The old rooms are still on display, and new rooms inside the castle area are still part of the hostel today. The dominant industry in Altena was wire production, and thus it has a museum dedicated to this industry only, the Drahtmuseum.From the same book: only The edge of the coin is adorned with two wavy lines, separated by a rhombus.
The small axis of the two rhombi is horizontal. The pictures of lei coin above are present on Romanian coins through the kind permission of an anonymous donor. The nickel coins of lei minted in and The coins struck during the war were made of zinc 25 and 20 lei or nickel plated iron leisolutions cheaper than nickel itself and also less necessary to the armament industry.
The pieces pulled out were demonetized, that is stamped inside a pattern that impressed both on the obverse and reverse paralel lines and concentric circles varying from case to case. This step forewent destruction and was meant to hinder fraudulent reintroduction of the coins back again on the market by the operators that were assigned to retrieve the precious metal.
Below there is such a marked coin for melting that somehow escaped destruction. The plant of Altena was specialized in nickel metallurgy, and here were made the nickel-plated iron planchets on which the lei and were struck. The recovered nickel was partially used for plating the mentioned iron planchets, the rest having been used by the German industry.
About nickel coins and about nickel. The 50 and lei coins issued inand are the first and, since today, the only Romanian coins made from nickel. The Romanian coinage used the nickel for the first time at the cupronickel coins of 5, 10 and 20 bani The first modern nickel coin is a Swiss 20 centimes from Even some antique nickel coins exist, struck in the 2nd century B.
It is not known for sure where did the nickel used by the Bactrians for coinage come from. Nickel is a silvery-white metal, ferromagnetic, and very resistant to corrosion and oxidation. The US 5 cent piece, named "nickel", is made from a copper and nickel alloy that is not ferromagnetic. So, despite its name, no pure nickel! The copper-nickel alloys with less nickel are not ferromagnetic because their Curie points the temperature at which the magnetic properties change, by heating, from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic are below the common temperatures of the surrounding medium.
Or something alike Nowadays the best known nickel coins are the ones struck by Canada, e. Below you can see a counterfeit coin made of lead? A good share of the fakes introduced on the market in the period between the two World Wars and during the Second World War were manufactured inside the very Romanian State Mint, with the very original dies. Several common metals and alloys were used. Most often encountered are the bronze and lead fakes.
Previous coin. Next coin. Back to selection page! Under the neck lies I. Jalea, the engraver's name.The German army used the 7. The 7. It is such a versatile and effective cartridge that it is still in use today, being produced by factories in both Europe and the US. Click here!
This article will concentrate on the headstamps of the WW2 cartridge cases, not only giving an explanation of the headstamp components, but also listing all the manufacturers, plating firms and steel producers recorded in the headstamp.
Early brass cased cartridge cases. The Treaty of Versailles severely limited the number of weapons and ammunition the Germans could produce, restricting the production of the 7. From untilwith a few factories still using a P number intothere were 34 distinct manufacturers of the 7. The headstamps for this period, and indeed throughout the warwere made up of 4 distinct pieces of information. The lot number assigned to a manufacturing run could be found on anywhere betweenand 3, cartridge cases, with the size of the lots increasing as the war progressed.
It was purely used to identify a batch of cartridges should any problems arise with them during use. Early steel cased cartridge cases.
The second type of headstamp system used by the German factories identified copper-washed and lacquered steel cartridge cases. Each lot was usually made up of 10,kg of steel which was enough to manufacture aroundcartridge cases. If any problems with quality were experienced during one manufacturing run, the steel would be mixed with other lots to complete the batch.
It is therefore quite possible to find a headstamp with the manufacturer, lot and year the same, but the steel code different. The third and final system used by the Germans came in around and continued until the end of the war.
In this third system, there were two additional pieces of information sometimes included in the headstamp. The first, a dash after the manufacturer code, showed the cartridge case had a single flash hole from the primer, and not the standard berdan 2 holes. The second, two opposing radial lines, indicated the case was made from bar stock rather than the usual flat stock.
Variations to this third system were sometimes used to differentiate between 2 factories of the same company. In this way, an individual factory could be identified. Another method for showing different factories was to use a dot after the manufacturer stamp, as can be seen below. I have no example to show you but the headstamp varied by carrying only three sets of info.
Firstly was the manufacturer code, then the date usually four digitsand finally the SS rune. Other variations include those cartridges made outside of German during WW2. Of note are both Hungarian and Czechoslovakian factories.Ubuntu 4g modem
Lastly, whilst not of German manufacture, or any of its alliesbelow is shown a British manufactured 7.Zweifel daran sind angebracht. Noch gibt es die meisten Lebensmittel nur auf dem Schwarzmarkt.
Die Demontage von Betrieben der Montanindustrie ist in vollem Gang. Wie soll so ein Bruttosozialprodukt zustande kommen? Hier herrscht Aufbruchsstimmung. Am Bald werden die Regale voll mit Waren sein. Das Selbstlob ist interessant, aber nicht wirklich nachvollziehbar.
Gelungen sind Ausstattung K. Gruber und Besetzung Casting Nina Haun. Drehbuch und Regie dagegen gelingt es trotz ausgezeichneter Darsteller nicht, Herausragendes auf den Schirm zu bringen. Geht das nicht auch mal ohne Liebesschmonzetten? Warum sehe ich FAZ. NET nicht? AGB Datenschutz Impressum. Services: Klimaschutz braucht Vielfalt Services: Handel Trendbarometer. Services: Wertheim Village X Luminale. Services: Best Ager. Services: Leben mit CovidAt the end of WW1 the French faced the decision to replace the ageing 8mm Lebel and Berthier rifles with a more modern cartridge.
Various experimental rounds were tested during that time period but in the 7. However, not long afterwards in it was replaced by the shorter 7. It was a lightweight and rugged rifle that was suited to the jungle conditions of South East Asia.
It was a bolt action rifle however so it became obsolete because most Western powers as well as the Communist Bloc already had semi-auto rifles that were developed just post WW2. Activities at the plant resumed in after WW2 until when it was amalgamated with Rennes Construction Workshop for the large caliber ammunitionwhich later became GIAT Industries.
Sometimes loader as well as metal provider under the name of Cartoucherie de la Seine. Laquered steel tip. Activities at the plant resumed in after WW2 until when it was amalgamated with Rennes Construction Workshop for large caliber ammunitionwhich later became GIAT Industries. Laquered steel bullet. Steel case. Experimental zinc-chronak case.
Experimental aluminium case. Manufacture Camerounnaise de Munitions, State Factory. French Contract load for the Government of Cameroon. Establishment of Material of the Army of South Vietnam. Headstamp is also in reverse, with year of manufacture at the bottom and trimester of manufacture at the top.
Steel turned, tin plated tip.
AP-T Mle. Case has a purple extractor groove. FN Belgium. Below are two variations of the short range spotter tracer Mle. F2 for the mm recoilless rocket.Burg Altena
Blank Mle. Aluminium or chromated steel base. Fired blank. Machinegun Blank Mle. Sometimes also the case supplier under the name of Cartoucherie de la Seine.
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Rifle Blank Mle. Laquered steel case. The sequence on the headstamp is different from normal as the trimester of manufacture and metal supplier C were switched. Very early blank manufactured from reworked 7. This was also the period when wooden bulleted blanks were being phased out because in the plastic Mle.Values in the table above are expressed in USD.Gpu hosting
They are based on evaluations by Numista users and sales realized on Internet platforms. They serve as a measure, but they are not intended to be relied upon for buying, selling or exchanging.Jon and sansa reunion fanfiction
Numista does not buy or sell coins or banknotes. Frequencies show the percentage of Numista users who own each year or variety among all the users who own this coin. Try the new Numista design! Tracy L. Schmidt editor ; Standard Catalog of World Coins, Date 14 th edition. ISBN Thomas Michael editorTracy L.
Standard Catalog of World Coins, 7 th edition. Thomas Michael editor ; Standard Catalog of World Coins, 9 th edition. Standard Catalog of World Coins, 47 th edition. Jahrhundert: Gietl Verlag, Regenstauf, Germany. Jahrhundert: 3. I wish to get it I don't wish to get it. Feedback: none Country: Argentina Languages :. Feedback: none Country: Romania Languages :.
Feedback: none Country: Bolivia Languages :. Feedback: none Country: Brazil Languages :. Numista Rarity index: 9 Search tips This index is based on the data of Numista members collections.
It ranges from 0 to0 meaning a very common coin or banknote and meaning a rare coin or banknote among Numista members.
Facebook Twitter. KMTracy L.VDM Metals Group formerly Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke based in WerdohlGermany, is a manufacturer of corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant and high-temperature nickel alloyscobalt and zirconium alloys as well as high-alloyed special stainless steels.
The merger took place on the initiative of Metallgesellschaftwhich was the main shareholder of Heddernheimer Kupferwerke since and also took over the majority of the new corporate group. The global economic crisis had forced a consolidation of previously competing companies. The new company had a share capital of 30 million Reichsmark and had branches and manufacturing facilities in HeddernheimGustavsburgMannheimNurembergCologne and in Altena, Werdohl and Duisburg.
The group's companies remained independent under their previous name e. Heddernheimer Kupferwerk GmbHbut the production program was redistributed by material group to the individual plants. The incipient rearmament of the Wehrmacht skyrocketed the demand for light metal products.Blackberry q10 5 icons row
Bythe number of employees at VDM rose to 21, mainly due to the production of variable pitch propellers for aircraft of the Luftwaffe. Because of the great importance of the VDM for the war economyalmost all buildings and factories were heavily destroyed in the air raids on Frankfurt am Main during the Second World War. At the end of the war, the production collapsed completely, all works were shut down at the direction of the Allies and partly dismantled.
It was not untilunder the leadership of Wilhelm Kirmser, that the gradual reconstruction and transition to civilian production began. In the early s, VDM became the world's largest manufacturer and distributor of raw, semi-finished and finished non-ferrous metals and alloys.Math ia ideas statistics
Thereafter, the company continuously lost market share. A major cause of the difficulties was the fragmented corporate structure of six separate companies, which did not allow a consistent strategy and investment. Inthe plant in Cologne was shut down and the remaining works were combined into seven business units:. Despite the restructuring and some acquisitions in the s, sales continued to decline. The company reacted with rationalization measures, a reorientation of the production strategy, the sale of individual company shares and the closure of unprofitable production units and plants.
This reduced the number of employees from 14, to 6, in At this point in time, only the plants of the business area nickel Altena, Unna and Werdohl were still productive.
This division was formed from the merger of the Werdohl and Altena plants into the business area nickel in In Novemberthe Spanish stainless steel producer Acerinox announced the signing of a share-purchase-agreement to acquire VDM Metals. In addition to the alloying element nickel, the alloy contains 25 percent chromium, 20 percent cobalt, about 5.
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Various tests have shown that the material in the solution-annealed and hardened condition achieves higher hardness values and lower creep rates than, for example, Alloy C material number 2. The application temperature is up to degrees Celsius. In Junea nickel base alloy with 29 percent chromium and 2 percent aluminum was introduced, which is characterized in particular by its metal dusting resistance.
The material has the material number 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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